Standards, Designs, and Equipment

Many standard designs are available through a variety of manufacturers. The Cryogenic Society of America provides an extensive Buyer’s Guidefor parts, equipment, and services.

Basic engineering resources for cryogenic systems design can be found through Goran Perinic's Homepage at CERN in France/Switzerland.

Cryostat design and materials properties: The following web site provides supplemental information for the book //Experimental Techniques for Low-temperature Measurements: Cryostat Design, Materials Properties, and Superconductor Critical-Current Testing//, published by Oxford University Press in 2011.

Below are some of the established international codes and regulations:

Fluid Properties:

Materials Properties:

Various Design Guides:
LANL Process Piping Guide

Guide to Mechanical Insulation (i.e., non-vacuum thermal insulation systems):

Mechanical Insulation Design Guide
The National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) through the National Mechanical Insulation Committee (NMIC) has developed the Mechanical Insulation Design Guide (MIDG) to provide a comprehensive source of information on the performance, use, testing and standardization of mechanical insulation in buildings and industrial facilities. While this guide does not address details of cryogenic insulation requirements, it does provide much helpful information for piping and vessel systems operating below ambient temperature. Note the caveat given in the guide under the Materials and Systems section: "Cryogenic insulation systems require specialized engineering beyond the scope of this document."

Heat Leakage Rates (Heat Leak) for Vacuum-Jacketed (VJ) Piping:

A good estimate for the heat leakage rates (heat leak) is an important starting point for the design of cryogenic vacuum-jacketed piping systems. Below are links to various heat leak estimates for VJ piping and bayonets. Note that VJ in all of these cases means highly evacuated multilayer insulation (MLI).

Caution: Take full doses of common sense when the system includes elements that are not VJ (such as bare flanges, mechanical (add-on) insulation, etc.): the total heat leak of the system is usually what matters, so don't strain at a milliwatt when the connecting part is a kilowatt!